Food is the head of government, and high standards of farmland break down "relying on heaven for a living."
Hong Fan eight politics, food as the political leader. The report of the 19th CPC National Congress states, "ensure national food security and firmly hold the rice bowls of the Chinese people in their own hands." The construction of high standard farmland is one of the important measures to ensure the food security of our country. In order to keep the rice bowls full of Chinese grain firmly in their hands, it is necessary to continuously improve agricultural production conditions, promote the construction of high-standard farmland, and further enhance grain production capacity.
On November 6, Premier Li Keqiang presided over an executive meeting of the State Council to consolidate the agricultural foundation, ensure the supply of important agricultural products, and stabilize prices. The meeting decided on the measures to promote the construction of high-standard farmland with the goal of improving grain production capacity: first, to highlight the protection of cultivated land, land fertility improvement and efficient water-saving irrigation; second, to establish and improve the stable growth mechanism of farmland construction investment; The third is to explore the reasonable farming system of the combination of land and land to ensure that the quantity and quality of high-standard farmland do not decrease.
All things are born in the earth, and there is earth and grain. In recent years, the central and local governments at all levels have continuously increased their human, material and financial input in irrigation and water conservancy, farmland leveling, soil improvement and so on.
Driven by agricultural scientific and technological innovation and the improvement of agricultural production environment, the development of agricultural modernization in China has made good achievements. Among them, the construction of irrigation and water conservancy infrastructure and the construction of high-standard farmland have achieved remarkable results. According to statistics, by the end of 2018, the effective irrigated area of cultivated land in China had reached 1.02 billion mu, an increase of 2.4 times over 1952, with an average annual growth rate of 1.9%, and a total of 640 million mu of high-standard farmland had been built. With the transformation of a large number of medium and low yield fields into high standard farmland with high and stable yield, the agricultural production conditions in China have been greatly improved.
The "Strategic Plan for Rural Revitalization" clearly puts forward the requirement of "building 1 billion mu of high-standard farmland in 2022", which also puts forward specific goals for the next step in the construction of high-standard farmland in China.
Generally speaking, high-standard farmland refers to "fields into blocks, channels connected, roads into networks, trees into rows", that is, land formation, concentration, good ecology, strong ability to resist disasters, and adapt to modern agricultural production and management.
Many provinces adjust measures to local conditions, straighten out the mechanism, and change the situation of "five cattle going to the field" and decentralized management of farmland construction in the past. Recently, Henan has officially launched the mapping and evaluation of high-standard farmland construction since the 12th five-year Plan, and it is expected that in March 2020, the evaluation results of high-standard farmland construction will be formed in the province since the 12th five-year Plan. To ensure that high-standard farmland construction "the bottom is clear, the location is accurate, the situation is clear." Hebei Province will arrange for the construction of 2.8 million mu of high-standard farmland and the simultaneous development of 1.404 million mu of high-efficiency water-saving irrigation in 2019. In some parts of Jilin Province, the high standard farmland adopts the same technology and model as the problem-solving formula to ensure drought and waterlogging, high and stable yield.
At present, the construction of high-standard farmland in China is still facing some challenges.
The enthusiasm of farmers to participate is not high. From a theoretical point of view, high-standard farmland can bring real benefits to farmers. However, due to the lack of publicity work, farmers' understanding of high-standard farmland is insufficient, and the degree of participation needs to be improved. This undoubtedly increases the difficulty of high-standard farmland construction.
It is difficult to adjust the land during the land contract period. In general, in accordance with the principle of "overall planning, concentration of funds, continuous development", high-standard farmland construction needs to break the original farmland plots and readjust the distribution of farmland plots, and some farmers are often reluctant to participate. In particular, some farmers who already have high-quality land before, due to the extension of the land contract period, resulting in their willingness to participate in the construction of high-standard farmland is not strong.
The phenomenon of "emphasizing construction and neglecting management and protection" is more common. Due to the large scale and wide range of construction contents of high-standard farmland construction, it needs to be carefully arranged from planning and design to concrete implementation. After completion, due to the unclear property rights of field engineering facilities, supervision mechanism and maintenance measures are not in place, resulting in the late management and protection of high-standard farmland facing greater hidden dangers.
In order to promote the construction of high-standard farmland, it is also necessary to increase investment, improve the quality of cultivated land, and establish and improve the long-term mechanism of investment in farmland construction. Specifically, efforts can be made in the following areas:
We will strengthen publicity for project construction and fully respect the wishes of farmers. To declare the high standard farmland project, we should publicize it in the area where the project is located, get the approval of the farmers in the region, and let the project construction get the participation and support of the broad masses of farmers, so as to reduce the construction resistance and cost.
We will increase financial support for the construction of high-standard farmland and improve the comprehensive production capacity of grain. In particular, we should strengthen the construction of high-standard farmland in major grain-producing areas and major agricultural protected areas, improve the quality of cultivated land, continuously improve agricultural production conditions, and explore a reasonable farming system with the combination of land and land.
We will innovate the construction mechanism for investment and promote appropriate scale operation. Under the principle of "in accordance with the law, voluntary, paid", encourage new agricultural operators to participate in the construction of high-standard farmland, give them corresponding policies and preferential measures, in order to promote land circulation and appropriate scale operation.
The completed high-standard farmland should go through the transfer formalities, implement the main body of management and protection responsibility, establish a long-term mechanism for the management and protection of high-standard farmland, ensure that the benefits of state investment in farmland construction can be brought into full play for a long time, and solve the dilemma of "relying on heaven for a living". (Gao Ming, Associate researcher, Rural Economic Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and villages)