Desertification Control in Qinghai Province helps to protect the Source of three Rivers
Xinhua News Agency, Xining, November 13th, by title: desertification Control in Qinghai helps protect the Source of the three Rivers
Xinhua News Agency reporters Lu Xueli and Li Linhai
Since taking part in the work, Jiang Zhiyun has been fighting against the sand.
Jiang Zhiyun, 52, is director of the Sanjiangyuan Office of the Natural Resources Bureau of Guinan County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province. The county has a total land area of 9.974 million mu, of which desertification land area of 3.42 million mu (desert area of 1.42 million mu), distributed in Mugetan and surrounding areas, involving 6 townships in the county.
Before the middle of the last century, the desert around Muge Beach and Huangsha Tau spread at a rate of 5 to 15 meters every year. Nearly 3000 mu of grassland farmland was swallowed up by the desert every year, and some herdsmen drove their families to migrate in order to survive.
Tibetan herdsman Razega said: "in the past, the wind and sand was particularly strong, our grass mountains were covered with sand, cattle and sheep could not eat grass, and the roads next to the desert were blocked by sand." at that time, we particularly hated sand. " Ratziga said.
Since the 1990s, the government of Guinan County has established ecological control measures focusing on the control of desertified land. Over the past 20 years, the cumulative investment has exceeded 1.3 billion yuan, and the area of desertification control has been 1.665 million mu, of which 1.1 million mu of artificial sand control and afforestation have realized the transformation from "sand forcing people to retreat" to "green into sand retreat".
Speaking of the hardships of sand control at the beginning, Jiang Zhiyun still frowned.
Jiang Zhiyun said that in the past, technology lagged behind, and there were few people involved in desert control, so the government mobilized the local people to participate in desert control. "at that time, technicians were first trained, and then technicians taught the people the skills of desert control. The local Tibetan, Hui and other ethnic minorities are actively involved in the work of desert control. "
"the high temperature is the biggest test for us. At that time, the ground temperature in the sand can reach nearly 60 degrees Celsius. Sometimes, after a shower, the sand is wet and hot, and the fog is transpiring. It's like we're in a sauna. Who would have thought that there would be so many people suffering from heatstroke on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau? " Jiang Zhiyun said.
Jiang Zhiyun recalls that at that time, some migrant workers wore shoes with rubber soles. Because of the high temperature, when they came home from work, the soles were glued to the ground, which became two parts of the upper. "when many workers go home without shoes, they can only tie their shoes with a rope tied to the seedling. Very embarrassed, it is in such an environment, we are fighting against the sand. " He said.
Now, when we go to Muge Beach and Huangsha Desert in Guinan County, poplar, seabuckthorn, black willow and other tree species let the desert put on a green coat. The herdsman said happily, "I never dreamed that the desert that used to 'bully the herdsmen' is now stable."
Most of the provinces in Qinghai Province, located on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, are arid and semi-arid areas, with a desertified land area of 187 million mu. Qinghai is the "source of the three rivers" and an important ecological security barrier in China, and the ecological environment is related to the sustainable development of the whole country.
In recent years, Qinghai adheres to the combination of natural restoration and artificial restoration, adopts comprehensive measures such as "making", "management" and "sealing", thick planting of green foundation and expansion of ecological space. Over the past five years, 21 billion yuan has been invested, 12.757 million mu of afforestation has been completed, 75 million trees have been planted voluntarily, and the scale of Qinghai forest has exceeded 4 million mu only in 2017.
Ketu was originally a sandy area on the northeast bank of Qinghai Lake. Through more than 40 years of control, the Ketu area, which was originally ravaged by wind and sand, has realized the transformation of the desert into an oasis, erected a green barrier 8 kilometers long and 3 kilometers wide on the wind-sand line on the north bank of Qinghai Lake, and stopped the spread of sand dunes to the east. It ensures the ecological security of the core area of Qinghai Lake.
Ketusha area is located on the side of the east road around the lake in Qinghai Lake, which is now a lush and luxuriant forest area. Dang Yongshou, director of the state-owned forest farm in Haiyan County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, told reporters that in the 1980s, it was still a quicksand area full of yellow sand. With a straight line of only 100 meters from the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, the railway was often buried by wind and sand overnight in the 1980s and 1990s.
"We usually have westerly winds here, and the sand dunes move from west to east at a speed of 5 meters a year." Dang Yongshou said that because the forward movement of sand dunes affects the Qinghai-Tibet Railway and the highway around the lake, railway and highway departments spend a lot of manpower, material resources and financial resources to clear sand and protect the road every year.
In the early 1980s, without any reference and experience, several generations of forestry people repeatedly studied and successfully planted the nutritious soil of Hippophae rhamnoides. A series of advanced practical techniques, such as culm cutting and deep planting of Fraxinus mandshurica, afforestation of container seedlings, sand barrier + seedling recommendation, etc., have found a new way of sand control and afforestation with high survival rate and quick effect in alpine sandy area.
Ma Wenhu, director of the Haiyan County Forestry Station, said: in view of the fact that there is a single afforestation tree species, they have studied everywhere, constantly experimented and explored, mastered the biological characteristics of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and successfully introduced and popularized them on a large scale. It fills the gap of afforestation evergreen tree species in alpine sandy area, and forms the natural desert ecosystem of the combination of Arbor, irrigation and grass.
Standing on the Ketu Green Pavilion looking west, the barren land ravaged by yellow sand has become a green sea.