Hard-won achievements in stabilizing employment and benefiting the people's livelihood
Since the beginning of this year, in the face of the complex situation of various risks and challenges at home and abroad, China's economic operation has continued the overall steady and steady development trend, the economic growth rate has been maintained in a reasonable range, and the expected goal of stabilizing employment and benefiting the people's livelihood has been achieved. This hard-won achievement is reflected in the following indicators. First, job creation continues to be strong. From January to October, 11.93 million new jobs were created in cities and towns across the country, achieving the goal of creating more than 11 million new jobs in cities and towns in the whole year ahead of schedule. Second, the unemployment rate remained low. The registered unemployment rate in cities and towns was 3.6% in the third quarter, and the unemployment rate in October was 5.1%, down 0.1 percentage points from the previous month and below the 5.5% control target. Third, the market search rate of 100 urban public employment service organizations (the ratio of the number of workers required to the number of job seekers) is 1.24, which is at a high level in recent years.
The achievements made in stabilizing employment and benefiting the people's livelihood basically lie in adhering to the general tone of seeking progress in our economic work, and comprehensively doing a good job in stabilizing employment, finance, foreign trade, foreign investment, investment, and expectations. The rate of economic growth is in line with the potential growth rate. In particular, since the beginning of this year, a series of bright spots have been formed in stabilizing employment.
First of all, since the 18th CPC National Congress put forward the implementation of employment priority strategy and more active employment policy, employment has been placed in a higher priority in government work. The report on the work of the Government at the Thirteenth National people's Congress proposed for the first time that the employment priority policy should be placed at the macro policy level. This is mainly reflected in the employment situation as the basis for the determination of macroeconomic policy direction, strength, as well as the coordination of various policies, the implementation of comprehensive measures to stabilize employment. As the first of the "six stable", the realization of the goal of stable employment lies in the appropriate direction and intensity of macroeconomic policies, which is in line with the changing economic situation, thus producing obvious results.
Second, the implementation of a series of measures, such as reducing taxes and fees, releasing management and clothing, and improving the business environment, have not only improved the business environment of enterprises, but also maintained the sustainable growth of new business entities. In stabilizing the original posts, but also continue to create new jobs. The service industry has become the main channel of employment absorption, especially new business type and the new employment model, the mobility of jobs has increased significantly. Because "new employment" is a flow concept, the increase in the number of new jobs or the flow of job transfer is conducive to the completion of this index.
Thirdly, the government public employment services in place, especially the auxiliary measures for specific groups of people, shorten the time of frictional unemployment. Job training, especially unemployment insurance, is used to help enterprises stabilize their posts and upgrade their skills. On the one hand, it reduces the willingness of enterprises to fire workers as far as possible, on the other hand, in the case of partial layoffs and unemployment, It shortens the time when transferred workers are structurally unemployed.
Finally, demographic trends also help to ease the pressure on employment. Following the negative growth of the working-age population between the ages of 15 and 59 in 2011, the economically active population also began to grow negatively in 2017, the annual new growth labour force continued to decline and the labour shortage persisted. In addition, due to the increase of young people in school, the return of middle-aged migrant workers, and the reduced willingness to work of the retirement age population, the labor participation rate of all age groups has decreased in recent years. These situations lead to the coexistence of employment difficulties and recruitment difficulties, which is characterized by the prominent structural problems, while the contradiction between the total amount of employment is relatively less prominent.
China's economic development will still face a complex and changeable international environment, economic growth will inevitably encounter the impact of the demand side; In the process of turning to high-quality development, the transformation of development mode, the adjustment of industrial structure and the transformation of growth kinetic energy will inevitably lead to the transfer of some workers. Therefore, to continue to do a good job in the "six stable" work of stabilizing employment first, it is not only very important but also needs to deal with severe challenges.
First of all, at the macro policy level, adhere to and improve the employment priority policy, timely and appropriate use of macroeconomic policies to maintain the overall stability of employment. Second, grasp the balance of the development of manufacturing and service industries, multi-channel, sustainable expansion of employment space. In recent years, the proportion of the service industry has increased significantly, which has made an important contribution to the stable growth rate and the expansion of employment. In order to comprehensively consider the two objectives of maintaining the upgrading and optimization of China's industrial structure and improving the sustainability of employment expansion, we must adhere to reform and opening up, improve the business environment, create a better institutional environment, and stabilize the proportion of manufacturing in the national economy.
Finally, more use of inclusive social security and public employment services, the carrier of the labor force, that is, people as the object of protection, and as little as possible to the post as the object of protection. In the process of industrial structure adjustment and coping with shocks, it is sometimes necessary to protect jobs, but at the same time, it will also protect excess or ineffective capacity, which is not conducive to the creation of new jobs. Without creative destruction, there will be no innovation. Only by fastening the social security network can we more fully embrace the competitive environment of survival of the fittest and achieve the goal of "six stability" in an all-round way. (Cai Fang, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)