Promoting the Transformation and upgrading of Animal Husbandry with supply-side structural Reform
Recently, the continuous rise of domestic pork prices has brought a certain impact on the production and life of urban and rural residents, causing concern from all walks of life. Since the founding of New China, the rapid development of animal husbandry in China has played a key role in improving the living standards of urban and rural residents. However, at present, there are still structural problems in the development of animal husbandry in China that do not meet the requirements of economic and social development, the transformation and upgrading of animal husbandry industrial structure lags behind, and the uncertain factors facing development continue to increase. There is an urgent need to promote transformation and upgrading through supply-side structural reforms.
For a long time, the practitioners of animal husbandry in China are mainly a large number of retail investors. To a certain extent, retail farming has solved many problems in the early development of animal husbandry, such as human, financial, land and so on, and effectively met the needs of the domestic consumer market. With the economic and social development, the production and management thinking of volume expansion through retail aquaculture is obviously insufficient in its adaptability to the social environment. The standardized production level of retail aquaculture is not high, the prevention and control ability of epidemic situation is weak, the input capacity of environmental protection equipment is insufficient, the scale benefit of unit output is low, high quality development and innovation are insufficient and so on. From the perspective of the national macro policy environment, the red line of national laws and policies such as environmental protection ecology and land use is becoming more and more strict, and the scattered breeding sites built by retail investors are facing unprecedented pressure from land and environmental protection policies.
In the future, the development of animal husbandry must change from labor-intensive quantitative growth to capital-and innovation-intensive quality and efficiency growth. The main strategy to promote the supply-side structural reform of animal husbandry is to realize the intensive, large-scale, high efficiency, standardization and ecological development of animal husbandry.
Intensive. Intensive culture is relative to decentralized culture. In the traditional sense, in the case of loose environmental protection policies and relatively abundant land resources, farmers tend to breed nearby in order to develop their production. This kind of culture method has carried on the effective use of the space resources in front of the house and behind the house, and these space resources basically do not take into account the cost to the farmer. However, with the development of economy and society, the limitation of retail breeding mode is becoming more and more obvious, and the problems such as non-point source pollution, epidemic control and low efficiency are gradually exposed, which affect the healthy development of animal husbandry as a whole. Squeezed the space for the transformation and upgrading of animal husbandry. With the improvement of the production efficiency of the whole society, in the face of the prohibition, restriction and relative shortage of land resources under the tightening of environmental protection policies, the promotion of unit space breeding capacity has become an inevitable requirement to promote the transformation and upgrading of animal husbandry. Intensive culture is the only way to improve the production capacity of unit space.
-- on a large scale. Scale can be said to be the collateral effect of intensification, and scale itself will give rise to obvious production advantages, mainly reflected in two aspects: one is social effect; the other is economies of scale. Large-scale production can effectively reduce the cost input of management, service, transportation and so on. From the development trend, the impact of the macro environment is long-term, tight, decentralized in the macro environment, the living space of small-scale farmers is getting smaller and smaller, the traditional extensive breeding methods have been more and more unable to meet the requirements of the development of the times. In practice, it is difficult to rely solely on decentralized, small-scale farmers to carry out a self-revolution and promote the transformation of animal husbandry. There are still complex technical problems to be solved behind intensification and scale. We can rely on animal husbandry enterprises to explore diversified strategies such as leasing breeding, self-farming and leasing farming to solve the problems of intensification and scale. Explore the cooperation mode of "company + peasant household", and lead the retail investors to the road of professionalization.
High efficiency. The main goal of efficiency is to increase the production capacity in the unit production space on the basis of reducing the cost input in the unit production space. Generally speaking, it contains two meanings: one is to reduce the cost, and the other is to increase the production capacity. Through the renewal of breeding equipment, improve the degree of automatic breeding, improve the efficiency of the use of human resources, reduce human costs. The labor costs saved through the renewal of aquaculture equipment can be put into production again, thereby increasing production capacity. Therefore, the essence of efficient aquaculture is to increase per capita aquaculture capacity. In recent years, with the rise of some large animal husbandry enterprises, the trend of efficiency has become increasingly apparent, and has been gradually accepted by farmers.
Standardization. The degree of standardization of decentralized and small-scale farmers is low, and the process control is difficult, which leads to the low controllability of food safety. Intensive and large-scale culture is easier to achieve standardized culture, the production process is more controllable, and the safety of food is also enhanced. Standardized culture can effectively enhance the controllability of production, through standardized culture, the production process is strictly limited, the quality and quantity of the products can be effectively improved. The more decentralized, small-scale culture, the more difficult to achieve standardized culture, the more intensive, large-scale culture, the higher the degree of standardization, the easier it is to achieve standardized culture. From the trend of economic and social development, consumers will have higher and higher requirements for food quality. Standardized breeding is not only the inevitable choice to meet the market demand, but also the most effective means for the main body of animal husbandry to carry out production control. (Yan Peihua, researcher, Research Center for Urban-Rural Integration and Development, South Agricultural University)