Stabilize breeding expectations and ensure that farmers "raise pigs without worry"
On November 14, Premier Li Keqiang presided over a forum on the economic situation and ensuring the basic livelihood of some provinces in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province. He stressed: all localities should earnestly do a good job in ensuring the price of pork and other necessities of life, and the masses should warm through the winter.
Since the second half of last year, the pig breeding industry has been seriously affected by the epidemic of classical swine fever in Africa. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Village, in September this year, the slaughtering volume of live pig slaughtering enterprises above the scale was 12.3372 million, down 35.8% from the same period last year, and the stock of live pigs and breeding sows in 400 monitoring counties decreased by 41.1% and 38.9% respectively compared with the same period last year. The rapid decline in pig production capacity has led to a sharp rise in pork market prices. According to the monitoring data of the Bureau of Statistics on the market prices of 9 major categories and 50 important means of production in 24 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), The price of live pigs (foreign three yuan) has risen from 11.5 yuan per kilogram in late June last year to 41.4 yuan per kilogram in late October this year, an increase of 260 percent.
The state attaches great importance to this. At the executive meeting of the State Council on 21 August, the State Council decided on measures to stabilize pig production and ensure the supply and price of pork, and pointed out that stabilizing pig production and ensuring pork supply is related to the development of agriculture, rural areas and farmers, the livelihood of the masses, and price stability. It is clearly required that localities immediately abolish the provisions on pig breeding and restrictions that exceed laws and regulations, and that land should be arranged to support off-site reconstruction of farms (households) that are closed and relocated in restricted areas designated according to law. On the 14th, when the prime minister inspected the drought in Jiangxi, he also stressed once again to the local responsible person that the state supports not only the development of large-scale pig farming, but also the free farming of farmers.
State support does bring rare development opportunities for small farmers, but there are still many constraints affecting smallholder farming:
The total income of small households is not considerable. Pork prices have soared this year, and some farmers have made a lot of money, but in ordinary years, the profit of raising a pig can stably reach 300 yuan is already considerable. Today, with rising wages per capita and rising material costs, the appeal of small-scale farming is relatively limited. Moreover, the breeding sites of some farmers have been sealed up, and the relevant facilities have been dismantled. If they are recultured, they need to re-invest in infrastructure, and the cost is higher.
Environmental problems still exist. Although the state holds a positive support attitude for small farmers to develop aquaculture, encouraging breeding is not laissez-faire, the environmental problems that may arise in aquaculture still need to be paid attention to, and some farmers in compound farming will take into account the cost of environmental protection. Today, with the increasing improvement of the rural environment, some people have a repellent attitude towards pig farming in their neighbors. On a legal consulting website, someone asked: "the neighbor has raised four pigs, now the taste is too big, can there be a regulation not to raise pigs?" There are also farmers confused, in the website advice "I raise pigs in the countryside, but therefore in conflict with the neighbors, neighbors complain about us many times, how to do?"
Farmers also have concerns about the epidemic. The outbreak of classical swine fever in Africa has a great impact on the pig breeding industry, and many farmers have retreated as a result. As the vaccine research and development has not yet made a significant breakthrough, some farmers still have doubts and fears about the epidemic. Recently, a sample survey conducted in Hunan Province showed that concern about the epidemic of classical swine fever in Africa is the most important factor affecting the willingness of farmers to raise.
Farmers are worried about taking market risks. The periodicity of pig growth leads to the fluctuation cycle of meat price, and it is not uncommon for pig farmers to make up the column when the price is high and when the price is low. At present, the number of breeding sows has been greatly reduced, the supply of piglets is limited, and prices have risen significantly, nearly doubling from the same period last year. Some farmers are worried about stepping on the wrong cycle and encounter market risks.
In addition, some farmers may have doubts about the sustainability of the policy. They fear that once pig production capacity is restored, the ban will be implemented again.
In order to remove the above obstacles, we can start with the following points.
First of all, strengthen policy support and emphasize the implementation effect to eliminate farmers' doubts about aquaculture. First, we will speed up the payment of subsidies for the compulsory culling of classical swine fever in Africa, and appropriately raise the standard of subsidies. Second, we should arrange the reconstruction of aquaculture farms in different places as soon as possible, formulate support policies in line with local conditions, focus on epidemic prevention and environmental protection, and encourage small farmers who are willing to expand the scale of aquaculture. The third is to establish aquaculture communities in conditional areas to provide choices for farmers to concentrate on aquaculture. Fourth, promote the construction of aquaculture social service system, and improve the docking efficiency between small farmers and the market. Fifth, increase investment in vaccine research and development and strengthen the construction of epidemic prevention system. Sixth, emphasize the implementation of the "vegetable basket" mayor responsibility system, strengthen the local attention to pig breeding.
Secondly, it is necessary to encourage the combination of breeding and fecal treatment at the same time, so as to eliminate the environmental hidden dangers of aquaculture. We should fully explore the bearing advantages of the planting industry to the feces of the aquaculture industry, encourage the return of manure to the field, guide farmers, large growers and family farms to cooperate with each other and co-ordinate resources.
All regional management departments can take into account, according to the local land resources and the ability to absorb pig farm feces, in accordance with the development of the combination of breeding ideas, formulate a pig development plan suitable for the region. Scientific research institutions are encouraged to improve fecal treatment technology and increase the efficiency of harmless treatment and resource utilization of pig manure. Guide each region to combine the actual situation, formulate the organic fertilizer development plan, to the existing pig farm, carry out the garden three-dimensional ecological agriculture model, realize the virtuous circle. Areas with conditions can also be developed under the forest aquaculture.
In addition, it is necessary to strengthen policy guidance and publicity of epidemic prevention knowledge to stabilize the expectations of farmers. Through a variety of ways to convey to farmers the spirit of the central government and governments at all levels, timely abolish the pig breeding ban and restrictions beyond the laws and regulations, clarify the long-term nature and sustainability of policies and regulations, and stabilize the policy expectations of farmers. At the same time, strengthen the publicity of epidemic prevention knowledge, guide farmers to form a correct understanding of African classical swine fever, control epidemic prevention measures, familiar with response measures, and eliminate the fear caused by the unknown. (Wu Tianlong, Associate researcher, Rural Economic Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and villages)