Xi Jinping: learning the basic Theory of Marxism is a compulsory course for Communists
Learning the basic Theory of Marxism is a compulsory course for Communists
Today, the political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee held its fifth collective study on the Manifesto of the Communist Party and its significance of the times. This year marks the 200th anniversary of Marx's birth and the 170th anniversary of the publication of the Communist Manifesto. The CPC Central Committee has made arrangements for commemorating the 200th anniversary of Marx's birth, and a commemorative meeting will be held in early May. At this point of time, it is of great significance for the Politburo of the CPC to study the Communist Manifesto collectively.
It is a compulsory course for Communists to study the basic theory of Marxism. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee has studied the basic principles and methodology of historical materialism, dialectical materialism and Marxist political economy. The purpose of the collective study of the Communist Manifesto by the political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee is to revisit the classics, understand the truth power of Marxism, strengthen the belief in Marxism, and trace back to the theoretical source of the advanced and pure nature of Marxist political parties. We will improve the ability and level of the whole Party in using the basic principles of Marxism to solve practical problems in contemporary China.
All the comrades present here have read the Manifesto of the Communist Party. Today, when we review this classic, we are still deeply educated and inspired. Combined with this study, I would like to talk about three points of understanding.
I. A profound understanding of the Great theoretical contribution of the Manifesto of the Communist Party
The advent of the Communist Manifesto is a great event in the history of human thought. The Manifesto of the Communist Party is a great work that comprehensively expounds the principles of scientific socialism for the first time. It "openly states its own views, its own purposes, and its own intentions to the world," and stands a monument to the spirit of Marxism. The major theoretical contributions of the Communist Manifesto include the following aspects.
On May 2, 2018, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the State, and chairman of the Central military Commission, came to Peking University for an inspection tour. This is Xi Jinping's cordial conversation with Chinese and foreign students who are having a discussion on "interpreting the New era" at the School of Marxism at Peking University. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Tao / photo
First, it profoundly expounds the scientific world outlook of Marxism. The Communist Manifesto describes the new world outlook, that is, historical materialism, in a thorough and distinct language, which provides people with a scientific and ideological weapon to understand nature and human society. In the history of human thought, idealism used God, human nature, ideas and so on to explain all the world outlook, which once ruled people's understanding of social phenomena for a long time. Before the birth of Marxism, utopian socialism lashed out at capitalism and sketched the future social picture, but could not find the correct way and social force to realize its social ideal. In the Manifesto of the Communist Party, Marx and Engels scientifically expounded the inherent contradictions of capitalism and the historical mission of the proletariat, and revealed the historical inevitability of socialism replacing capitalism. This paper incisively discusses the nature, characteristics, basic program and strategic principles of Marxist political parties, and draws a clear line between scientific socialism and other various socialist schools. Some important ideas put forward in the Communist Manifesto, such as historical materialism, class struggle, the historical mission of the proletariat, the new communist society, the all-round development of human beings, the world market, and so on. It has revolutionary, groundbreaking and breakthrough significance in the history of human thought. The Manifesto of the Communist Party profoundly reveals that the history of slave society is the history of class struggle. It reveals the general law of the development of human society in which the productive forces determine the relations of production, the economic base determines the superstructure, and the contradictory movements between the productive forces and the relations of production, the economic base and the superstructure promote the replacement of social forms in turn. This paper reveals the internal contradiction between the socialization of capitalist production and the private possession of the means of production, and reveals the historical law of the inevitable demise of capitalism and the inevitable victory of communism. As Engels said: "this principle seems very simple, but if you look closely, you will immediately find that the initial conclusion of this principle is a blow to all idealism, even the most hidden idealism." He also said that "this fact is the most revolutionary conclusion not only for theory, but also for practice." After the publication of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, Marx and Engels continued to develop their thoughts, and finally formed a systematic and complete ideological and theoretical system. The Manifesto of the Communist Party is a classic work with a scientific insight into the law of the development of human society, and it is a classic work full of fighting spirit, critical spirit and revolutionary spirit. It is a classic work that adheres to the stand of the people, works for the interests of the people, and strives for the liberation of all mankind. The scientific and revolutionary nature of Marxist theory stems from the scientific world outlook and methodology of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, which provides a powerful ideological weapon for us to understand and transform the world. It has pointed out the correct direction for world socialism.
Second, it profoundly expounds the advanced character of Marxist political party. The Communist Manifesto makes an in-depth exposition of the advanced nature of Marxist political parties, pointing out that the Communist Party is not a special political party opposed to other workers' political parties, and that they do not have any interests different from those of the proletariat as a whole. In practice, the Communist Party is the most resolute and always promoting part of the workers' political parties in various countries. In theory, the Communist Party is superior to the rest of the proletarian masses in that they understand the conditions, processes and general results of the proletarian movement and represent the future of the movement at the same time in the current movement. Marxist political parties must be made up of the most thorough and determined advanced elements, and communists should be the most tireless, fearless and reliable advanced soldiers. These thoughts provide a fundamental follow for Marxist political parties to maintain their advanced nature and purity.
Third, it profoundly expounds the political position of Marxist political parties. The "Communist Manifesto" does not hide the class nature of Marxist political parties, takes a clear-cut stand on the side of the proletariat and the broad masses of the people, and enthusiastically eulogizes the great role of the people in promoting the progress of history. Regard the proletariat as the representative of the advanced productive forces, the gravedigger of the capitalist system, and the creator of the new social system, and emphasize that all movements in the past were movements of or for the benefit of the minority. The movement of the proletariat is an independent movement of the vast majority of people and for the benefit of the vast majority of people. This distinct political position fully affirms the historical subject status of the people and fully embodies the fundamental nature and purpose of Marxist political parties.
Fourth, it profoundly expounds the lofty ideals of Marxist political parties. The Communist Manifesto has established that the highest goal of Marxist political parties is to realize communism and regard the realization of human freedom and all-round development as the essential feature of communism. This lofty ideal stands at the commanding height of human morality, and has become the firm belief of generation after generation of communists in loyalty and unyielding strength, and the spiritual pillar of overcoming all difficulties without fear of any risks. It has become the spiritual banner for Marxist political parties to unite the broad masses of the people to smash the old world and create a new world.
Fifth, it profoundly expounds the revolutionary program of Marxism. The Communist Manifesto pointed out that the first step of the workers' revolution is to raise the proletariat to the ruling class, win democracy, and make use of its own political rule to increase the total amount of productive forces as quickly as possible. The Communist Manifesto has also put forward concrete measures on how to develop the productive forces, and although some of its specific contents are no longer applicable today, the spirit contained therein is still of positive significance. These ideas lead the people to carry out revolutionary struggle and seize political power by armed forces, and to strengthen the building of political power, especially the building of the ruling party, after Marxist political parties seize power. It is of great and far-reaching guiding significance to the development of socialist democracy, the development of social productive forces and the promotion of social progress in an all-round way.
This is the interior of the White Swan Cafe in the center of Brussels, Belgium, on February 7, 2018, where Marx and Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto. Xinhua News Agency reporter Ye Pingfan / photo
Sixth, it profoundly expounds the internationalist spirit of Marxist political parties. The Communist Manifesto made a profound analysis of capitalist production crossing national boundaries and constantly opening up the world market, and scientifically foresaw the universal trend of material production and spiritual and cultural production in the world. Furthermore, it is pointed out that communism is not a narrow regional movement, and the proletariat must liberate all mankind if it wants to be completely liberated, and calls on the proletariat all over the world to unite. This provides a scientific and theoretical basis for Marxist political parties to cherish the whole world, benefit mankind, and jointly create a better world.
The Manifesto of the Communist Party is a rich theoretical treasure house, which makes theoretical contributions in many aspects, which is worthy of our repeated study and in-depth study, and constantly draw ideological nutrition from it.
II. A profound understanding of the far-reaching impact of the Communist Manifesto on World Socialism
As soon as the Communist Manifesto was published, it promoted the development of world socialism in practice and profoundly changed the process of human history. Engels said that the Communist Manifesto is "the most widely disseminated and international work in all socialist literature, and is recognized as a common program for millions of workers from Siberia to California." Soon after the publication of the Communist Manifesto, a huge revolutionary movement broke out in Europe. In 1864, after the establishment of the International Workers' Association (historically known as "the first International"), under the leadership of Marx, it supported the struggle of the working class in various countries and the struggle of the oppressed nation for national liberation. The Paris Commune Revolution, which broke out in 1871, was the first great attempt to overthrow bourgeois rule and establish a regime dominated by the people. Through struggle, the working class in various countries have won major victories that could not have been achieved in the past, such as political voting rights, eight-hour working hours, labor legislation, and so on.
In November 1917, Lenin succeeded in leading the October Revolution, opened a gap in the weakest chain of capitalism, established the first socialist country in the world, and realized the great leap of socialism from theory to practice. The success of the October Revolution proved the truth of the Communist Manifesto and gave hope to the proletarian revolution and the national liberation movement in various countries. After the end of the second World War, a number of countries have embarked on the socialist road, socialism has developed from one country to many countries, and the socialist strength in the world has been greatly strengthened.
The older generation of revolutionaries of our Party embarked on the revolutionary road under the influence of the Manifesto of the Communist Party. The first party platform of our Party was formulated in accordance with the spirit of the Manifesto of the Communist Party. The new democratic revolutionary road, the socialist revolutionary road, the socialist construction road and the socialist road with Chinese characteristics opened up by our party are all great creations that combine the basic principles of Marxism with the concrete reality of China. The Communist Party of China is a faithful descendant of the spirit of the Communist Manifesto.
The Manifesto of the Communist Party is the most influential work in modern times. Over the past 170 years, the Communist Manifesto has been translated into more than 200 languages and published thousands of editions, making it one of the largest circulation books in the world. In the past 20 years, various institutions in the West have selected "Millennium thinkers" and "the most influential scholars", and Marx has been among the best or even at the top of the list. Since the occurrence of the international financial crisis in 2008, the "Marx fever" has sprung up again in the world, and the research on "Communist Manifesto" and "Das Kapital" has once again become a hot topic. Facts have proved that the truth power of the Communist Manifesto is eternal and has had and will continue to have a profound impact on the process of world history.
III. Adhering to the Scientific principles and Scientific Spirit of the Manifesto of the Communist Party
Marx and Engels said when they were alive that some parts of the Communist Manifesto "can be modified" or "written differently," but it "elaborates the general principles that are still completely correct to this day." Although the Communist Manifesto was born 170 years ago, its basic principles are not out of date, nor will it be out of date. I said, "if you don't feel secure in your heart, go and study the classics, and read the Communist Manifesto a few more times." what you are talking about is to review the past and know the new truth. Today, we review the "Communist Manifesto", which is to apply the scientific principles and scientific spirit contained in the "Communist Manifesto" to the practice of taking charge of great struggles, great projects, great undertakings, and great dreams. We will continue to write a new chapter in upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.
First, we should unswervingly strive for the lofty ideal of communism and the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The inevitable trend of human society towards communism revealed in the Manifesto of the Communist Party has laid the theoretical foundation for the Communists to strengthen their ideals and beliefs and stick to their spiritual homeland. The establishment of ideals and beliefs is a rational choice, not a temporary impulse, simple feelings are far from enough, but also must be supported by profound theoretical beliefs, otherwise it will be shaken as soon as there is wind and grass. As long as we master the basic principles of Marxism, we can deeply realize that the realization of communism is a long historical process gradually achieved by a phased goal, which requires successive struggle, hard struggle and unremitting struggle of several generations. We will be able to deeply realize that socialism with Chinese characteristics is the only way to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and it is also the successful road for the Chinese Communists to lead the people to pursue lofty ideals and open up a bright future. At the beginning of this year, I said at the symposium of the new two committees and major leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial level: "if socialism had not been as successful as it is today in China, If the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the socialist system of our country also collapse in the collapse of the Soviet Union, the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the upheaval in Eastern Europe, or fail for other reasons, Then socialist practice may wander in the dark for a long time, as Marx said, as a ghost in the world. " Due to the continuous success of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the situation of socialism in the world has been reversed to a great extent after the end of the Cold War, and the passive situation of socialism in the competition with capitalism has been reversed to a great extent. The superiority of socialism has been demonstrated to a great extent. We should unify the lofty ideal of communism with the common ideal of socialism with Chinese characteristics and with what we are doing, strengthen road self-confidence, theoretical self-confidence, system self-confidence, and cultural self-confidence, and not be afraid of any risks. Do not be confused by any interference, always adhere to the ideals and beliefs of the Communists, and live up to the glorious title of the Communists.
Second, we should faithfully practice the people-centered development thought. In learning to use the "Communist Manifesto," we must not forget our original ideals and aspirations, bear in mind our mission, always put the people in the highest position in our hearts, better enhance the well-being of the people, and promote the all-round development of human beings and all-round social progress. In planning development, we should focus on meeting the growing needs of the people for a better life, implement the new concept of development, strive to solve the problem of uneven and inadequate development, improve the quality of development, and constantly improve the quality of life and taste of the people. To deepen reform, it is necessary to properly handle major issues related to reform from the standpoint of the people, resolutely remove all institutional and institutional obstacles that hinder the development of productive forces, and resolutely eliminate all ideas that bind the progress of social civilization. Bring more sense of gain, happiness and sense of security to the people. To ensure and improve people's livelihood, we should focus on making development achievements more equitable and benefiting all the people, do our best and do what we can, and promote social fairness and justice. New progress has been made in nurturing the young, learning and teaching, working and getting paid, providing medical care for the sick, providing security for the elderly, living in housing and helping the weak, and making continuous progress towards the common prosperity of all the people.
On May 9, 2018, a foreign audience was attracted by a wall of books showing more than 500 "Communist Manifesto" published in different countries in Beijing's "Power of Truth-theme Exhibition commemorating the 200th Anniversary of Marx's birth." China News Service reporter Jia Tianyong / photo
Third, we should conform to the general trend of world development and promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. At present, with the in-depth development of world multipolarization, economic globalization, social informatization and cultural diversification, countries are more interrelated and interdependent than ever before. It fully confirms the scientific foresight made by Marx and Engels in the Manifesto of the Communist Party. Every country has the right to development and should consider its own interests at a broader level and not at the expense of the interests of other countries. The practice of unilateralism and protectionism is not in line with the law of the development of human society. We should unswervingly safeguard and develop China's development interests, at the same time, we should unswervingly open wider to the outside world, promote the international community to share the responsibility of the times, and cooperate to meet the challenges brought about by economic globalization. We will promote economic globalization in a more open, inclusive, balanced and win-win direction, so that different countries, different strata and different people can share the opportunities brought about by economic globalization.
Fourth, strengthen party building in accordance with the new requirements of the new era. The Manifesto of the Communist Party has laid a theoretical foundation for the Marxist theory of party building. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, we have not only gained a new understanding of upholding the Party's leadership in theory, but also made a new exploration in practice, and perfected the system and mechanism of the Party's leadership over all work. We should implement and embody adherence to the party's leadership in all fields of reform, development and stability, domestic and foreign affairs, national defense, and the party, the country, and the army, so as to ensure that the party always takes charge of the overall situation and coordinates all parties. If the Party wants to lead the people to promote the great social revolution and realize the great rejuvenation of the nation, it must carry forward the spirit of self-revolution and further promote the determination, demand and strength of administering the Party strictly in an all-round way. It is necessary to conscientiously implement the general requirements and major arrangements for party building in the new era put forward by the 19th CPC National Congress, and while promoting party building as a whole, focus on solving new problems within the party. Efforts should be made to solve the problems of formalism and bureaucracy reflected by the masses of the people, problems that some cadres dare not do, are unwilling to do, and will not do, and some problems of weakening, vanishing, and marginalizing party building at the grass-roots level, and so on. To ensure that our party will always maintain the true nature of Marxist political parties, always walk in the forefront of the times, and always be the backbone of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation.
Fifth, constantly open up a new realm of Sinicization of Marxism. To keep pace with the times, to share the destiny with the people, to pay attention to and answer the major issues put forward by the times and practice is the secret of Marxism to maintain its vitality and vitality forever. The general principles set out in the Communist Manifesto are correct as a whole, but the Communist Manifesto cannot be required to provide ready answers to all the specific questions raised by the development of human society 170 years later. We should treat science with a scientific attitude, pursue truth in the spirit of truth, and constantly endow Marxism with new connotations of the times. We should have an insight into the times, grasp the general trend of the times, stand at the forefront of human development, and actively explore major issues related to the future and destiny of mankind. To address the global challenges facing the world today, to solve the common problems facing mankind to contribute to China's wisdom, China's plan. It is necessary to closely liaise with the creative practice of hundreds of millions of people, respect the dominant position and pioneering spirit of the people, make new generalizations, gain new understandings, and form new achievements. It is necessary to adhere to the problem orientation and focus on the major practical issues facing China's reform, opening up, and socialist modernization, the overall strategic issues, and the hot and difficult issues that the people are concerned about. To provide new ideas, new ideas and new methods for solving problems. It is necessary to absorb all the outstanding cultural achievements created by mankind, constantly deepen our understanding of the ruling law of the Communist Party of China, the law of socialist construction, and the law of the development of human society, and develop Marxism in the 21st century and Marxism in contemporary China. Continue to write a new chapter in the Sinicization of Marxism.
Sixth, strengthen the study and study of Marxist classics. The vast number of party members and cadres, especially senior cadres, should make good use of Marxist classics such as the Manifesto of the Communist Party, persist in applying what they have learned and promote learning, learn from the original, and be familiar with and thoroughly understand. Proficient in Marxist positions, viewpoints, methods, and constantly improve the theoretical literacy of Marxism. It is necessary to strengthen the compilation of classical works, persist in producing both achievements and talents, and train a backbone team for compiling classical works of Marxism in the new era. It is necessary to deepen the study and interpretation of classical works, promote the propaganda and popularization of classical works, and constantly launch various forms of theoretical propaganda works that are popular among the masses and close to public life, so that the theory can be understood and accepted by hundreds of millions of people. Draw the largest concentric circle of thought.
In another 30 years, that is, the 200th anniversary of the publication of the Communist Party Manifesto in 2048, it will be time for us to build a powerful socialist modern country in an all-round way and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. At that time, the Chinese Communists and the Chinese people will further prove the science, truth, and predictability of Marxism with their own feats. Let us welcome the arrival of this great moment with practical action.
This is General Secretary Xi Jinping's speech at the Fifth Collective study of the political Bureau of the 19th CPC Central Committee on April 23, 2018. )