Reporter's notes: 60 years, 6000 herdsmen, 100000 hectares of forest farms
Xinhua News Agency, Xining, November 15, by reporter's notes: 60 years, 6000 herdsmen, 100000 hectares of forest farms
Xinhua News Agency reporters Zhang Dachuan and Li Yaguang
In the early winter morning, the air in the Makohe forest area of Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province is clear, and the Moqing spruce is locked in the mountains on both sides of the Marco River by morning fog. All the way south along the valley, the green water is dense, the bushes are lush, and the water deer and rock sheep that jump out from time to time add a lot of life to the silent mountains.
Marco River Forest Farm is the largest primeval forest area in the source of the Yangtze River, covering an area of more than 100000 hectares. More than 6000 Tibetan herdsmen live in the "eighteen valleys and eighteen streams" along the Marco River. The reporter followed the local guide into the hot flood ditch, the swift current of the hot Hongqu clear, herdsmen Anzi too with a strong Tibetan style home is located on one side of the stream.
In the 1960s, when Anzi Gatai was born, horse saws and axes began to enter the forest, making the forest area once a "hot land" for cutting, and "old liberation and wood" became his childhood memory. In the following 30 years, timber management became an important source of livelihood for local herdsmen, and the relationship between man and nature gradually slipped into the dangerous situation of fishing.
In the early 1990s, a forest worker could cut down up to 10 trees a day, with the thickest diameter of nearly 1 meter and the thinnest of 10 centimeters. At the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the average altitude is 3600 meters above sea level, the spruce with the thickness of the bowl mouth will grow for about 60 years. Every year from June to August, there are about two kilometers of motorcade waiting to be loaded in the Marco River Canyon every day.
The change took place in 1998. Qinghai Province issued a circular on stopping the cutting of natural forest resources, the Marco River Forestry Bureau launched the construction of a pilot project for the protection of natural forest resources, and the forest region was completely transformed from forest industry cutting, wood production and management to the protection and cultivation of forest resources. This year, Zhu Fuhai, former deputy director of the Forest Farm of the Marco River Forestry Bureau, a former forest worker, took a photo in front of a stone tablet that "started the natural protection project for the benefit of future generations."
At first, the change left the local herdsmen at a loss. Once large tracts of forest succumbing to axe saws, once a root of wood down the river, once hard-working to support the family to make a living, suddenly disappeared. At the beginning of this century, illegal logging was not uncommon, simply because illegal cutting of a bowl of wood could earn 7 yuan, and if it was carried to a neighboring county or Sichuan, it could sell for 20 yuan each.
Both Aziga and Zhu Fuhai have encountered illegal logging incidents. Once stopped, the herdsmen who came to the illegal logging would gather 20 to 30 relatives and friends from the same village and surround the guards, and they would inevitably quarrel with each other. Without a new livelihood, illegal logging can hardly be eliminated. The successive incidents of illegal logging and poaching are also forcing the local government and the Marco River Forestry Bureau to find ways and ideas.
Under the strict red line of forest conservation, the older generation of herdsmen tried to ask for productivity from the limited arable land, and the young herdsmen began to look at the economy under the forest. Fritillaria, Notopterygium, Morchella and other characteristic products walked out of the mountains. Since then, most of the more than 1000 local herdsmen have been included in the sequence of rangers, rangers and ecological caretakers by the government, and herdsmen have been able to make money by protecting forests.
In recent years, the Marco River Forest region has relied on the local rich Tibetan traditional culture, multi-ethnic architectural style and red tourism resources to increase its income, and the annual per capita income of the masses has increased from more than 1330 yuan in 2014 to more than 7800 yuan in 2018. At the same time, data from the Marco River Forestry Bureau show that illegal logging and poaching of wildlife in forest areas have declined year by year and are almost extinct.
Every year, from late April to late May, local herdsmen take turns to afforestation in the mountains. In the past three years, herdsmen have earned more than 10 million yuan in labor services, and next to the newly planted saplings are sturdy tree stumps. Compared with 1998, the forest coverage rate increased from 51% to 69.58%, and the forest volume increased from 4.2 million cubic meters to 4.83 million cubic meters.
Over the past 60 years, 100000 hectares of forest farms and 6000 herdsmen have experienced the transformation from deforestation to "I want to protect" to "I want to protect" in the dusk of the forest.
In the evening, herdsmen who patrol at least 25 days a month and patrol at least 4000 kilometers a year return home on motorcycles from 18 valleys, and every household rises cooking smoke and is quiet and quiet.