The Enlightenment of Green-- A re-investigation of typical cases of Ecological problems in Western China
Xinhua News Agency, Lanzhou, November 16th, by title: Enlightenment from Green-- A re-investigation of typical cases of Ecological problems in the Western region
Xinhua News Agency reporters Ren Weidong, Tan Fei, Wang Bo, Zhang Yujie
The mountain starts from here, and the water comes from here. Through the ecological eye, the northwest region can be described as extremely important and extremely fragile.
Muli coalfield over-regulated mining, Tengger Desert sewage, Qilian Mountain disorderly development, Qinling northern foot illegal construction villa. Since 2014, the ecological alarm bell has been sounded continuously in the northwest, which has attracted the attention of the central government and the whole society.
The reporter followed these typical cases for a long time and witnessed the gradual changes from the initial destruction to the recovery of rectification and management. Recently, the reporter returned to visit, re-investigation, the wounds of the earth gradually healed, after the labor pains to welcome the new life.
To observe and analyze the specimens of these ecological problems is to find the crux of the present construction of ecological civilization and to find a way out for the future.
The change of background Color from Black to Green
In the hinterland of the Qilian Mountains, next to the towering dense forest, a low spruce is growing quietly. More than 600 days ago, this new green place was dark, and hundreds of millions of years of coal had been dug up deep underground.
This is the former site of Qianmalong Coal Mine in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Wuwei City, Gansu Province. Its exploration and mining history has been more than 40 years, and several of them have changed their owners. Two years ago, coal mining procedures were complete, with more than 460 employees.
In July 2017, the Central Office and the State Office issued a severely worded circular on the destruction of the ecological environment in the Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province. According to the circular, the problem of illegal exploitation of mineral resources in protected areas is serious.
90% of the area of Qianmalong Coal Mine is within the experimental area of Qilian Mountain Reserve, which must be withdrawn in accordance with the regulations. The local government and business owners signed a compensatory exit agreement, entrusted by the government, funded by enterprises, demolished, cleared and covered with green.
Today, facilities and equipment have been dismantled, mining warrants have been cancelled, and the old coal mine site has changed from black to green. Zhao Mingjun, director of the Tianzhu County Natural Resources Bureau, said that after ecological restoration is qualified, it will be handed over to the protected area Administration for unified management.
Sadly, the eco-environmental problem in the Qilian Mountains is neither the first nor the first case in the western region. In front of Muli coalfield over-regulated mining left "black Tiankeng", Tengger desert enterprises caused huge "sewage ponds", and later Qinling northern foothills occupied woodland cultivated land illegal construction of villas, each shocking and thought-provoking.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the environmental problems in the western region have been constantly exposed, and the ecological alarm bell has sounded one after another. In the past few years, reporters have visited the places where typical cases occurred many times, heard and heard and witnessed shutdown and withdrawal, demolition and bombing, and recovery of green cover.
In Qilian Mountain Reserve, 144 cases of licensed mining rights were closed and withdrawn, and 111 cases of unowned mining rights left over from history completed the restoration and control of mine geological environment.
In the northern foot of Qinling Mountains, 1185 villas and 1528 sets of illegal construction villas were demolished in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, and 4556 mu of land was recovered.
From January 2015 to July 2018, the ecological restoration area of Muli mining area in Qinghai increased by 13.15 square kilometers.
Ningxia has ordered illegal sewage discharge enterprises to return and treat 448500 cubic meters of wastewater from evaporation pools directly discharged from deserts.
Recently, the reporter returned to these "ecological scars" and witnessed the "change of color". He also deeply felt that although excessive grabbing of the scars brought to nature can be "first aid," it will still take time for the system to recover.
On the other hand, the experience and practice of scientific governance, coordinated management and protection, and system restoration forced by rectification and rectification have allowed these places that have been reported to the whole country because of ecological and environmental problems. It has become a "museum" and "textbook" for the scientific restoration and management of the ecological environment.
The Muli coalfield, with an average elevation of more than 4000 meters above sea level, has approached the upper limit of the distribution and growth of most plants. After carrying out a long-term recommendation experiment in the local area, the team of China University of Mining and Technology explored the model of green planting and 5 recommended mixed sowing of organic fertilizer covered soil.
At the total sewage discharge of Ningxia Lanfeng Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., the camera monitors the water discharge in real time, and the automatic prototype is sampled and retained regularly. On the screen of the pollution source on-line monitoring system, the real-time concentration of pollutants such as chemical oxygen demand ((COD)) in wastewater is displayed. "the monitoring system is connected to the ecological environment department, and the data is uploaded in real time, and if the pollutant exceeds the standard, there will be an alarm and we can shut it down remotely." Ma Yongxing, deputy leader of the Environmental Supervision Detachment of the Zhongwei Ecological Environment Bureau, said.
In Zhangye City, which accounts for 70% of the total area of Qilian Mountain Reserve, the government cooperates with scientific research institutions to establish a large database by using information technologies such as satellite remote sensing, aerial remote sensing and ground monitoring. The construction of a three-dimensional ecological environment monitoring network of "looking at the sky, checking the earth on the ground, and managing the Internet" has greatly improved the level of environmental monitoring, early warning, supervision, law enforcement, and coordinated management.
The profound Revolution of Green Development Mode
The majestic Qilian Mountains contain infinite treasures. Once upon a time, rich minerals attracted capital to march deep into the mountains. Today, the good ecology of snow mountain glaciers and forest grasslands is being regarded as a treasure.
In Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province, an investor who has spent more than 10 years and tens of millions of yuan prospecting in Qilian Mountain is transforming "prospecting". Compared with several thousand yuan per ton of ore, the return on the sale of mineral water in bottles is low and the effect is slow, but after the "most stringent accountability storm in history", he gradually realized the new investment logic.
"nowadays people yearn for fresh air and clean water. After the closure and withdrawal of the mine, the ecology of Qilian Mountain will become better and better, and the water quality will become more and more pure. A good ecology is the goose that lays golden eggs. I have confidence in the industry and in the market. " He said.
A number of former "mine bosses" admitted: investors have been deeply aware that the ecological red line, like production safety, has become the number one risk that investment must attach great importance to! Only by transforming the green industry can there be a way out in the next step.
Capital has the sharpest sense of smell. The wind direction of capital is also an observation window for the change of the mode of development.
Once upon a time, local governments "relied on mountains and mountains" to attract investment to invite investors to open mines and set up factories, so as to prosper the economy and develop the people's livelihood. After the rectification and rectification of the Qilian Mountain Reserve, the general public budget income of Tianzhu County was reduced by 40 percent; before the illegal mining of the Muli coalfield in Qinghai Province, the gross domestic product of the Tianjun County was several times that of the present.
However, while industrial civilization has achieved rich material wealth, there are also worries caused by the "pain of breathing" and the "cry of the mother river".
For a long time, large-scale prospecting and mining activities have caused local vegetation destruction, soil and water loss and surface collapse in Qilian Mountain Reserve. Muli coalfield after years of large-scale open-pit mining, leaving a shocking pit, local glaciers and alpine meadows seriously damaged.
The scars left in deserts, mountains, grasslands, forests and wetlands have become countless haze days, sandstorms, falling groundwater levels, and heavy metal contaminated land.
After several rounds of concussion, the cadres and masses involved in the matter were "alerted with a sharp slap." It has become the consensus of many places in the northwest to stop thinking and making up their minds on "Mother's Mountain" and "Mother River."
The cadres interviewed all said that for the underdeveloped western provinces and regions of Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia, protecting the ecological barrier is stable, the water of the rivers is clear, and the air is always new in the four seasons, which is not only a new mission, but also a permanent solution to sustainable development.
Ensuring Ecological Civilization with the strictest system and the strictest Rule of Law
Back on the scene, the green is getting stronger, but this is by no means the end. The ecological problem is not a disease of theory, but the focus of "under the iceberg" should be seen in the treatment. Taking this as a mirror and enlightening the future, only in this way can the tears of nature not flow in vain and the ecological civilization be realized.
Seeing the little progress of ecological renovation in Qilian Mountain, Ding Wenguang, a professor at Lanzhou University, believes that the effect is worthy of affirmation, and the goal has not yet been completed. In the future, we still need to study and practice, understand the deep changes of nature, and really achieve the deep restoration at the ecological level.
More than a year ago, herdsman Kang Yongsheng became an ecological caretaker in Qilian Mountain Reserve. He patrolled the prairie during the day and went to town to rest at night. "I used to be sloppy, but now I'm happy to get to and from work on time. I went to the city in the hope that my grandson would not come back for grazing. "
If we want to build ecological civilization as a whole, fundamentally and in the long run, the rule of law is indispensable.
In Qilian Mountains, Qinling Mountains and other places, the vague areas of policies and regulations have been exploited by profit violations and power rent-seeking, and developers have put on ecological, cultural, and other "vests" to engage in development, changing "national parks" into "private gardens."
In 2017, after the release of the Qilian Mountain Circular, the legal work Committee of the NPC standing Committee immediately launched a special review and study of relevant local laws and regulations. Preliminary statistics show that a total of 49 local laws and regulations specifically stipulate the protection of the ecological environment in nature reserves, of which 36 local laws and regulations are inconsistent with the relevant provisions of the Environmental Protection Law and the regulations of the people's Republic of China on Nature reserves.
Liang Ying, director of the filing and examination Office of the legal work Committee of the National people's Congress standing Committee, pointed out: in some places, there are no provisions on 10 types of prohibited activities, or there are no prohibitive provisions on the vast majority of activities, and in some places, the provisions are vague. Playing "edge ball", missing a few prohibitive activities.
As of December 2017, 21 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, and some municipalities divided into autonomous regions, had amended 26 relevant local laws and regulations and proposed to amend or repeal 384.
Yu Shuyi, director of the Institute of Environment and Resources Protection at Lanzhou University, believes that in recent years, the state has carried out a "major operation" on the ecological civilization system, which is intended to eliminate the ambiguity of power and responsibility under "Kowloon water control." However, the legislation has not yet been overhauled, and the top-level design of laws and policies matched with the concept of ecological civilization and the reform process of ecological civilization construction system is still not perfect, and finally the local environmental law enforcement system has not been thoroughly straightened out. "to amend the law in the field of ecological environment, it is also necessary to carry out systematic legislation and comprehensive management in a timely manner in accordance with the ecological concept." Yu Shuyi said.
Ecological problems and lessons are forcing China to reconstruct the pattern of ecological governance system, and governance according to law will become the most distinct background for the treatment of ecological and environmental problems. Yu Shuyi said: the governance view of protecting the ecological environment with the strictest system and the strictest rule of law aims to emphasize that in the complex system of the construction of ecological civilization, it is necessary to ensure that there are no shortcomings and zero dead corners in legislation, law enforcement, judicature, law-abiding and other links. In this way, there is a good ecological environment. This is the fairest public goods and the most inclusive well-being of the people. (reporter: Jiang Chenrong, Li Hua, Ren Wei, Chen Kai, Li Yaguang, Li Linhai)